【1】 Masato Kajimoto, edX Course: Making Sense of News, Journalism and Media Studies Center University of Hong Kong, 2015.
【3】 PBS, Better together: PBS NewsHour Student Reporting Labs, October 15, 2014, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/2014/10/better-together-pbs-newshour-student-reporting-labs/ (last visited May 04, 2016).
【4】 PBS Newshour, Lesson 2.3: Facts vs. Opinions vs. Informed Opinions and their Role in Journalism, PBS, https://d12grbbaljejv6.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/Lessson2_3.pdf (last visited June 8, 2016).
【7】 Stephen J. A. Ward, In your face: The ethics of opinion journalism, University of Wisconsin: Center for Journalism Ethics, February 8, 2011, https://ethics.journalism.wisc.edu/2011/02/08/in-your-face-the-ethics-of-opinion-journalism-2/ (last visited May 04, 2016).
【8】 司法院大法官會議釋字第509號大法官吳庚協同意見書，http://www.judicial.gov.tw/constitutionalcourt/uploadfile/C100/509.pdf （最後瀏覽日：2016年5月4日）。
【9】 Ward, supra note 7.
【11】Fred Brown, Fred Brown on Labeling Advocacy and Commentary, Society of Professional Journalists, http://blogs.spjnetwork.org/ethicscode/?p=158 (last visited June 8, 2016) (“It’s important to differentiate between opinion and impartial news coverage. More and more news organizations, though, seem to blur the lines between the two. The public has been a bit befuddled for years; many don’t distinguish between a newspaper’s editorials, say, and its regular news reporting. And there’s increasing evidence that members of the public gravitate to news sites with points of view that they agree with. They’re looking for affirmation of what they already believe, rather than new information that might challenge their beliefs. But even advocacy and commentary has an obligation to be accurate. And it needs to be identified, so the public doesn’t confuse it with what should be an impartial, accurate approach to the events of the day.”).
【14】Irving M. Copi著，張身華譯，邏輯概論，幼獅，1999年，頁85（演繹的論證，就是要求前提能提供確定性的證據，以便使結論正確的一種方法。） (“An argument whose premises are claimed to provide conclusive evidence for the truth of its conclusion”).
【15】同上，頁18（歸納法…是由各個相同的特殊事實，證明一個普遍的原理來。）(“From particular to general, from part to whole.”).
【16】羅振宇，胡適的百年孤獨，羅輯思維，2014年9月14日，https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SGNLPOU9WHI （最後瀏覽日：2016 年 3 月 31 日）。
【17】The Department of State of the United States, General Education in a Free Society, Report of the Harvard Committee (Harvard University Press) (1945) http://isites.harvard.edu/fs/docs/icb.topic996234.files/generaleducation032440mbp.pdf(last visited May 04, 2016).
【18】U.S. News and World Report, Best National Liberal Arts College, 2016 http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/williams-college-2229 (last visited May 04, 2016).
【19】Id. at http://colleges.usnews.rankingsandreviews.com/best-colleges/west-point-2893 (last visited May 04, 2016).
【20】Williams College, Fast facts about Williams, http://communications.williams.edu/media-relations/fast-facts/ (last visited on May 05, 2016).
【22】Truman State University, Fast Fact Infographic, http://www.truman.edu/about/facts-about-truman/fast-facts/ (last visited on May 05, 2016).