【1】 女力講堂蔡英文演講全文：「失敗了再站起來，找回台灣的叛逆與強悍」，點亮台灣 蔡英文、陳建仁，2015年9月2日，http://iing.tw/posts/87（最後瀏覽日：2016年5月17日）。
【2】 Cornell Law School, Facts and Statistics, http://www.lawschool.cornell.edu/about/facts_stats.cfm (last visited May 16, 2016).
【3】 Cornell Law School, LLM, http://www.lawschool.cornell.edu/admissions/degrees/graduate-legal-studies/LLM.cfm (last visited May 16, 2016) (“The Master of Laws (LL.M.) degree program at Cornell Law School is a one-year program designed for practicing attorneys and recent law school graduates who have earned a first degree in law outside the United States. Through the LL.M. program, students increase their understanding of American legal principles and can further develop a specialization in law.”).
【4】 Cornell Law School, Admissions, http://www.lawschool.cornell.edu/admissions/ (last visited May 16, 2016) (“Cornell Law School is a small, top-tier law school located in stunning surroundings of natural beauty. We enroll approximately 200 JD students and 85-90 LL.M. students each year to ensure that we maintain a close knit academic environment. Our students not only benefit from our small class size but also from one of the lowest student to faculty ratios in legal education.”).
【5】 Michael Makdisi & John Makdisi, How to write a case brief for law school: Excerpt Reproduced from Introduction to the Study of Law: Cases and Materials, Lexis Nexis, http://www.lexisnexis.com/en-us/lawschool/pre-law/how-to-brief-a-case.page (last visited May 16, 2016) (“ While opinions may vary, four elements that are essential to any useful brief are the following: (a) Facts (name of the case and its parties, what happened factually and procedurally, and the judgment) (b) Issues (what is in dispute) (c) Holding (the applied rule of law) (d) Rationale (reasons for the holding) If you include nothing but these four elements, you should have everything you need in order to recall effectively the information from the case during class or several months later when studying for exams.”); Lloyd Sealy Library, How to Brief a Case, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, http://www.lib.jjay.cuny.edu/research/brief.html (last visited May 16, 2016) (“These can be extensive or short, depending on the depth of analysis required and the demands of the instructor. A comprehensive brief includes the following elements: 1. Title and Citation, 2. Facts of the Case, 3. Issues, 4. Decisions (Holdings), 5. Reasoning (Rationale), 6. Separate Opinions, 7. Analysis.”).
【6】 College Board, https://collegereadiness.collegeboard.org/sat/inside-the-test/essay (last visited May 17, 2016).
【7】 LSAC, http://www.lsac.org/jd/lsat/about-the-lsat (last visited May 17, 2016) (“Reading comprehension questions measure the ability to read, with understanding and insight, examples of lengthy and complex materials similar to those commonly encountered in law school. Analytical reasoning questions measure the ability to understand a structure of relationships and to draw logical conclusions about that structure. Logical reasoning questions assess the ability to analyze, critically evaluate, and complete arguments as they occur in ordinary language.”)
【8】 New York State Bar Exam Information Guide, New York State Board of Law Examiners, April 1, 2016, https://www.nybarexam.org/thebar/NYBarExamInformationGuide.pdf (last visited April 29, 2016).
【9】 Law School Survival, The IRAC Method, http://www.lawschoolsurvival.org/index.php/legal-writing/the-irac-method (last visited May 17, 2016).
【10】Supra note 8.
【11】Cornell Law Library, Use a Study Aid, Cornell University Law School, https://law.library.cornell.edu/research/useastudyaid (last visited May 15, 2016) (“The Registrar's Office provides Cornell law students with an Online Exam Archive. These are actual Cornell law school exams from previous years. Exams are also available on the third floor of the library in alcove 5 by the soft seating area.”).
【12】林鐘雄，價格的決定－供需雙剪的故事，林鐘雄經濟特別專欄，中央研究院經濟研究所，2014年9月3日， http://www.econ.sinica.edu.tw/cclin/content/newsletter/contents/2013101514144813091/?MSID=2014090314092680484（最後瀏覽日：2016年4月24日）（「你甚至可以使一隻鸚鵡變成一位學術淵博的經濟學家，只要讓牠學會說兩個字眼：『供給』和『需求』。」(“You can make even a parrot into a learned political economist-all but learn the two words ‘supply’ and ‘demand.’”) ）。
【16】15 U.S.C. § 1 (“Every contract, combination in the form of trust or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, is declared to be illegal. Every person who shall make any contract or engage in any combination or conspiracy hereby declared to be illegal shall be deemed guilty of a felony, and, on conviction thereof, shall be punished by fine not exceeding $100,000,000 if a corporation, or, if any other person, $1,000,000, or by imprisonment not exceeding 10 years, or by both said punishments, in the discretion of the court.”).
【17】18 U.S.C. § 3571(d) (“If any person derives pecuniary gain from the offense, or if the offense results in pecuniary loss to a person other than the defendant, the defendant may be fined not more than the greater of twice the gross gain or twice the gross loss, unless imposition of a fine under this subsection would unduly complicate or prolong the sentencing process.”).
【18】US v. AU Optronics Corp. Indictment No. CR-09-0110, p.6-7 (“On or about September, 14, 2001, representatives from four Taiwan TFT-LCD manufactures…secretly met in a hotel room in Taipei, Taiwan and entered into and engaged in a conspiracy to fix the price if TFT-LCS. At this meeting, the conspirators agreed to meet approximately once a month for the purpose of fixing the price These meetings were commonly referred to by some of the conspirators as “Crystal Meetings” …A representative from defendant AU OPTRONICS CORPORATION stated at the September 14, 2001 meeting that the participants at future Crystal Meetings should include the two major Korean TFT-LCD manufacturers to ensure the success of the conspiracy to fix the price of TET-LCD… Up until 2003,the participants in the Crystal Meetings reached price agreements oncertain sized TFT-LCD used in computer notebooks and monitors.Beginning in 2003, the price agreements reached at the Crystal Meetings also included certain sized TFT-LCD used in flat-screen televisions.”).
【19】Roger A. Arnold, Microeconomics 252 (Cengage Learning Inc.) (2008); 公平交易法施行細則第3條：「本法第七條所稱獨占，應審酌下列事項認定之：一、事業在相關市場之占有率。二、考量時間、空間等因素下，商品或服務在相關市場變化中之替代可能性。三、事業影響相關市場價格之能力。四、他事業加入相關市場有無不易克服之困難。五、商品或服務之輸入、輸出情形。」。
【20】AU Optronics, supra note 18 (“During the period covered by this Indictment, participants in the Crystal Meetings regularly exchanged production, shipping, supply, demand, and pricing information with each other at the meetings for the purpose of agreeing to fix the price of TFT-LCD, as well as implementing, monitoring, and enforcing adherence to the fixed prices…In or about May 2005, the participants in the Crystal Meetings discussed that one or two major TFT-LCD customers may have detected the Crystal Meetings. To keep the meetings secret and avoid detection, the Crystal Meeting participants decided to stop having senior-level Sales executives attend the Crystal Meetings. Instead, the senior-level executives instructed Lower-level marketing employees to continue the Crystal Meetings…In or about the spring 2006, the participants in the Crystal Meetings became further concerned about being detected after receiving news reports of an ongoing price-fixing investigation by the United States Department of Justice into the dynamic random access memory (“DRAM”) industry and after receiving other information about a possible investigation into the TFT-LCD industry. To further avoid detection and keep the meetings secret, the conspiracy members… agreed to no longer meet as a group, but Instead have back-to-back, one-on-one meetings with each other on a certain date each month at restaurants and cafes in Taipei, Taiwan. ”).
【21】COMP/39.309 LCD (Liquid Crystal Displays (“The issue of potential cheating and the maintenance of order was an issue seriously considered and raised by the parties. TFT-LCD is a complex business to manage. Constant updates are required in order to monitor how the market develops and what the other suppliers are doing…As a result of these market conditions, TFT-LCD suppliers undertook significant efforts to ascertain how the market was developing, what components were available in the market, which volumes, and at what price. This included regular interaction between competitors. Based on the above, LCD suppliers tried to reduce uncertainty and instability in the market as much as possible.”)
【22】Department of Justice, Sherman Act Violations Yielding a Corporate Fine of $10 Million or More, https://www.justice.gov/atr/sherman-act-violations-yielding-corporate-fine-10-million-or-more (last visited May 20, 2016).
【23】DOJ, Criminal Program Update 2013: Liquid Crystal Display Panels, https://www.justice.gov/atr/public-documents/division-update-spring-2013/criminal-program (last visited May 15, 2016).
【30】HDC Medical, Inc. v. Minntech Corp. 474 F.3d 543, 547 (8th Cir. 2007) (“The boundaries of the product market can be determined by the reasonable interchangeability or cross-elasticity of demand between the product itself and possible substitutes for it.”).
【38】Addyston Pipe & Steel Co. v. United States, 175 U.S. 211, 237 (1899). Judge Posner notes that 90% of the prison sentences for violation of antitrust law arise in bid-rigging cases, citing Richard A. Posner, Antitrust Law, 44 n.29 (2d ed. University of Chicago Press) (2001).
【39】OECD, Guidelines for Fighting Bid Rigging in Public Procurement: Helping Governments to Obtain Best Value for Money (“Bid rigging is an illegal practice in all OECD member countries and can be investigated and sanctioned under the competition law and rules. In a number of OECD countries, bid rigging is also a criminal offence.”). http://www.oecd.org/competition/cartels/42851044.pdf (last visited April 24, 2016).